Abstract: In previous works, we developed a mathematical model of the internal ballistics of a muzzle-loading smooth-bore gun and made its software implementation. Model testing has shown that our understanding of the intra-ballistic processes of this type of weapon requires serious correction. One of the defining parameters is the geometry of the powder grain. This paper reviews the information available in the literature on this issue. It is concluded that in most works on the geometry of the grain is not reported, due to the fact that the grains had some kind of intuitively justified form. Based on the analysis of the technology for producing grain gunpowder in the first half of the 19th century, it was concluded that this shape is similar to the shape of pebbles on the beach.
Abstract: This article discusses the creation and combat operations of fighter-sabotage detachments of the Black sea group of troops of the Transcaucasian Front, the purpose of which was the destruction of manpower and equipment of the troops of the Hitlerite coalition. Besides this, acting in the rear of the troops of the Third Reich, the fighter-sabotage detachments extracted valuable intelligence data.
The materials from the Central archive of the Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation (Podolsk, Russian Federation) were used as sources, such as final operational reports, combat logs, combat reports, certificates, reports, reports, etc. In addition, the collections of archival documents and materials, as well as research by soviet, russian and foreign authors were involved.
In conclusion, the author points out that as a result of the fighting of the fighter-sabotage detachments, the significant losses of manpower and equipment were inflicted on the troops of the Third Reich, as well as valuable intelligence documents were seized.
Abstract: Sarapul timber industry enterprise – one of the oldest and largest forest enterprises in Udmurtia in its history has been reorganized more than once. In the period from 1938 to 1949 it was divided into several smaller farms, of which the fleet had only the Dulesovo mechanized forestry station. The source base on the work of this fleet during the war years is extremely limited. In the article, the reconstruction of the work of the fleet is carried out on the basis of orders for the personnel of the economy. The source falls under the law on the protection of personal data, which establishes 75 years, only after which, in 2020, the documentation became publicly available. At the beginning and end of the war, the fleet of the Dulesovo mechanized forestry station included a boat № 35 (30 hp) and one shitik (orlyana). An analysis of orders for wartime personnel showed extremely limited use of the existing fleet in the economy. Apparently, it was only by spring water that the ships were temporarily transferred to the Sarapul timber base for rafting, the rest of the time they were used for service and traveling purposes.
Abstract: This article discusses the organization and activities of the people's militia units created in July 1941 on the territory of Greater Sochi during the Great Patriotic War. They operated until August 1942, after which the militia units with their property were transferred to the fighter battalions. During the period of activity in the people's militia units, the fighters underwent military training, carried out the guard duty.
There were used as sources the archival materials of the Center for Documentation of the Modern History of the Krasnodar Kray and the municipal government institution “Archive of Sochi”, the collections of archival documents. In addition, the articles and publications of russian researchers, memoirs of veterans were involved.
The author comes to the conclusion that the activities of the people's militia units were aimed at carrying out the guard duty for the protection of strategic objects. Military and special disciplines were also trained, i.e. the people's militia units were the personnel reserve of the Red Army.
Abstract: At the moment, unmanned aerial vehicles are an actively developing system of weapons, possibly forming into a new branch of the military in the near future. The absence of a pilot allows not only to reduce the weight and dimensions of the apparatus, but also to reduce its cost. And the operator on the ground gets the opportunity to perform much more daring dangerous actions than manned vehicles.
The paper provides an overview of the features and results of the combat use of unmanned aerial vehicles in recent armed conflicts. The description of the Turkish UAV “Bayraktar” and the ammunition carried by it is given. The results of its application in the conflict in Nagorno-Karabakh, the operation “Spring Shield” and the civil war in Libya are presented in a concise form. A description of the “Tomahawk” cruise missile and the results of its use in Syria are given. The work was written on the basis of publicly available electronic media.